In any discussion of Buddhism, we must first realize that there are many schools and sects of Buddhism. Of the many world religions, Buddhism is possibly the only one which does not declare to be the one true religion. Shakyamuni Buddha, the historical Buddha, declared there are "84,000 paths to enlightenment." "84,000" representing an infinite number of paths to the Truth. However, all the schools and sects that fall under the category of Buddhism, must begin with the life of Siddartha Gautama, who came to be known as Shakyamuni Buddha. Shakyamuni meaning, the great sage of the Shakya clan. First and foremost, Shakyamuni Buddha was a man, a living, breathing, human being. Among the founders of religions, Shakyamuni Buddha was the only teacher who has emphasized this fact. He attributed all of his attainments to human endeavor, not divine inspiration from god or some other external factor. It is only man that has the possibility of attaining Buddhahood. As a result, we could call the Buddha, a perfect human being. It is because of his perfect "human-ness" that he has often become regarded as "super-human." Therefore, in understanding what lead this human being to become the Buddha, it is necessary to understand some of his life. A. The Life of Siddartha Gautama The Shakya clan or tribe lived in present day Nepal in the foothills of the Himalayas. It was said that his father Suddhodana was king of the Shakyas. The capital city for the Shakyas was a town called Kapilavastu. The actual place of Shakyamuni Buddha's birth is said to be in a nearby region known as Lumbini. To this day, there is a pillar, in the village of Padariya, near the border of Nepal. On this stone pillar is engraved the inscription: "The benevolent-faced King (Asoka), beloved by the gods, visited this place personally twenty years after his coronation and worshipped, as here the Buddha Shakyamuni was born. He ordered a stone wall to be constructed around the site and erected this stone pillar (to commemorate) the birth of the Bhagavat. He declared the village of Lumbini exempt from taxation and only required to pay one-eighth (of their yield)." 1. Birth There is some question as to the actual year of the Buddha's birth. Among scholars, there is approximately a one hundred year difference in the dates of his birth and death.Professor Hajime Nakamura considered the dates 463 BCE and 383 BCE as the years of his birth and death respectively. Therefore, for the purpose of this handbook we will go by those dates. Regardless, the fact that scholars have been able to ascertain these dates, is proof to the historical validity of the Buddha's existence. Our Jodo Shinshu tradition has held April 8, to be the birthday of Shakyamuni Buddha. We refer to it as Hanamatsuri (Flower Festival). (Refer to Buddhist Holidays) It was said that Shakyamuni Buddha's mother Queen Maya, had a dream of a Bodhisattva riding on the back of a six tusked elephant entering her side. After this dream, she became pregnant with the prince. Shakyamuni Buddha's mother and father had tried for many years to conceive without success. Therefore they were overjoyed at the prospect of the child's birth. As was the tradition of the day, Queen Maya was returning to her own home to give birth to her child. Along the way, she stopped in the garden of Lumbini. The legend says, that she gave birth, while plucking a branch from a tree. The legend says that the Earth shook in six directions and accompanying Bodhisattvas lowered the baby to the Earth. The baby then took seven steps and proclaimed, "In the heavens above and the Earth below, I alone am the world honored one." Thus he proclaimed his arrival as the Buddha. Of course, we realize that much of this is myth. What is important, is that the Buddha was born a human being, to very human parents. It was said that after his birth, King Suddhodana and Queen Maya were visited by a great ascetic named Asita. The parents had named their baby Siddartha meaning, 'to accomplish the objective' or 'achieve the goal.' Their family name being Gautama. Upon holding the baby, Asita began to cry. The worried parents wondered if the psychic Asita, had seen something bad in the baby's future. To the contrary, Asita had realized he was holding the future Buddha in his hands. Asita was crying at the realization he would not live long enough to witness the Buddha's enlightenment and subsequent teaching. Asita reported to the King and Queen that their son would either become a great ruler of the world or the Buddha. 2. Youth As a result of the Asita's prediction, the King shielded the young prince from the harsh realities of life. He hoped that by shielding his son from human suffering, the prince would become a great ruler of the world rather than the Buddha. Seven days after his birth, Queen Maya died. Siddartha was raised by his Mother's sister Mahapajapati. But try as he might, the King could not keep the realities of life from his son. The young prince had tremendous ability in all things, physical, mental and spiritual. According to the custom of the time, Siddartha was married at the very young age of sixteen, to the beautiful young princess Yasodhara. They soon had a young son, by the name of Rahula. It was said that the family had a palace for each of the seasons and lived a life of extreme luxury. Legends say that from time to time, the young prince ventured out of the palace to observe the life of his subjects. This is where the legends of the four gates developed. Upon leaving the first gate, he encountered an old man. Witnessing this, Siddartha began questioning the nature of aging. He stated, "In this manner I was wealthy and extremely comfortable but the following thought occurred: 'an uneducated common man, despite the fact that he is subject to old age and cannot avoid becoming old, upon observing old age in others has thoughts of annoyance, shame and disgust. I myself, am also subject to old age and cannot avoid becoming old, yet in spite of the fact that I am subject to old age and cannot avoid becoming old, upon observing old age in another, I would be annoyed, ashamed and disgusted. This is not proper.' And when I made this observation, the vigor of my youth vanished." In a similar manner, Siddartha witnessed a sick man, a corpse and then an ascetic striving for enlightenment. All of these things began to trouble the sensitive prince. At the age of 29, even with a beautiful wife, young son and a life of luxury, he set out to find the answers to these questions of life. After his enlightenment the Buddha spoke of this time. "O Bhikkhu, after I truly raised the mind to seek the way still I was a young man with dark black hair and filled with the joy of youth. In this spring of my life, despite the tears shed by my parents, I shaved my head, put on robes, renounced my home and became a homeless monk." If you look at the naijin you will see the "sumi yoraku" (refer to Hondo), representing the Buddha's casting off his jewelry to begin his search. Although this would seem unimaginable for any of us to leave our family in a similar manner, this was the deep desire for Truth, that began Siddartha's quest. It may seem harsh for Siddartha to leave his child and wife during this time in his life. However, Siddartha was searching for a better way for all sentient beings. After his enlightenment as the Buddha, his son Rahula, eventually became one of his disciples, as did his wife Yasodhara. 3. His Path The first teacher Siddartha sought was Alara Kalama. Kalama was a famous teacher, who was said to have had a deep understanding of life. He preached the state of non existence. Siddartha studied with Kalama and soon learned all that Kalama knew. Kalama asked him to take over and lead the group. However, Siddartha realized this was not the path to complete enlightenment. In the Buddhacarita it states: "At that time I thought: this Dharma does not lead to avoidance, to separation from desire, to extinction, to peace, to wisdom, to true Enlightenment, to serenity, it merely makes us attain the state of non-existence.' Thus I ceased to value that Dharma and dissatisfied with that Dharma, I departed." Siddartha's second teacher was the hermit Uddaka Ramaputra. Uddaka advocated the state of neither thought nor non-thought. Once again Siddartha was accepted as a student and soon gained all the wisdom that Uddaka had to offer and was asked to take over the group. Siddartha is once again quoted from the Buddhacarita. It states: "This Dharma does not lead to avoidance, it does not lead to separation from desire, it does not lead to extinctionserenity, it merely makes us attain the state of neither thought nor non-thought.' Thus I ceased to value that Dharma, dissatisfied with that Dharma I departed." After learning all that these two great teachers of his time could provide him. Siddartha continued his search. In many of the later stories concerning Shakyamuni Buddha, there are a number of teachers listed. However, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputra are documented from some of the earliest sources. Therefore, they are the most historically accurate. In his search for Truth, Siddartha learned all the major traditions of that time, emphasizing the wonder of his breakthrough once he reached enlightenment. After leaving these teachers, it was said that Siddartha entered a life of asceticism with five other seekers of the way. The time of his practice of asceticism varies from 6 to 7 years. There is an important quote that says Shakyamuni cultivated a mind of compassion for seven years. The importance is not in the time but in the idea of cultivating a mind of compassion. Some scholars tend to consider that the path of compassion was a relatively recent development of Mahayana Buddhism, while earlier Buddhists were much more self seeking. This quotation indicates that the ideal of compassion was indeed a central focus from Buddhism's beginnings. To many of us, it seems incredibly brave of Siddartha to enter the dangerous forests to begin this life of asceticism. After his enlightenment Shakyamuni commented on this question of fear. He said, "Why am I waiting for fear to come? Should I not overcome fear and terror as they approach? O'Brahmana, thus as I walked, stood, was seated or lay down, fear and terror approached me, and then as I walked, stood, was seated or lay down, I overcame fear and terror." This is a wonderful teaching for all of us. The harder a man consciously tries to overcome fear and terror, the more it increases. Realizing that there is no escape, one can firmly reside within the midst of these feelings to overcome them. In time Siddartha realized that asceticism was not the right path. He had practiced asceticism to the point of near death. His complexion was gray and his body thin and weak. In the Mahasaccaka sutta Shakyamuni states: "Then it occurred to me: 'Tranquillity is difficult to attain with this extremely emaciated body. I shall take some nutritious food-milk gruel.' Then I consumed the milk gruel. Now at that time the five religious in my company came to me saying: 'if the follower Gotama attains the Dharma, he will preach it to us.' But when I ate the nutritious food-milk gruel, those five turned away from me in disgust saying; 'the follower Gotama is avaricious and corrupt, he has abandoned his endeavors.' But as I took the nutritious food and gained strength, separated from various desires, from unwholesome things, with initial and discursive thought, I reached the state of the first dhyana (meditation) created by the joy of separation." Legends state that Siddartha accepted some rice and milk gruel from a young village girl and abandoned asceticism. Restoring his strength, he set out for Buddhagaya. During his journey, he stopped and sat under a Bodhi tree and attained enlightenment. From this point Siddartha will be referred to as Shakyamuni Buddha. It is also important to differentiate the two major schools of Buddhism, Mahayana and Theravada. Mahayana is the school of Buddhism where Jodo Shinshu falls under, as does most sects of Japanese Buddhism. Theravada is the other major school of Buddhism. Theravada means "path of the elders" and Mahayana means "large vehicle." The Theravada Buddhist's follow the literal teachings of Shakyamuni, whereas the Mahayana Buddhists follow the spirit of his teachings. Larger vehicle emphasizes the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism as a large vehicle to take all sentient beings to enlightenment. In comparison, the Theravada path which is often considered a solitary path. In recognition of this day of the day Siddartha reached enlightenment, we Jodo Shinshu Buddhist's refer to it as Bodhi day and celebrate it on December 8. However, according to the Theravada Buddhist tradition, his attainment occurred on the day of the full moon of the month of Vaiskha. This corresponds to the day of full moon in May of the solar calendar and is the reason why they commemorate this day in May. On this day Theravada Buddhist commemorate the Buddha's birth and enlightenment. As Nakamura Hajime has pointed out, "According to the Indian calendar, Vaiskha is the second month of the year, thus in Chinese translations of Buddhist texts it is frequently cited as the eighth of February. This Chinese calendar system often changed, but according to the Chou dynasty calendar, the lunar month of November was regarded as the first month; thus the eighth day of the second month became December 8. This is the tradition the Japanese inherited and the date on which they commemorate Shakyamuni's attainment. 4. His Enlightenment It is said that after Shakyamuni Buddha's enlightenment, his initial response was one of silence. Merely sitting in this contemplative state, he enjoyed the fruits of his endeavors. Most legends agree on this initial response of Shakyamuni Buddha. It was probably too difficult for him to talk about his new state. Other human beings would not be able to grasp the subtlety of his realization. According to the Pali Vinaya, after his enlightenment, he sat under the Bodhi Tree for quite sometime. Eventually, Shakyamuni recalled individuals such as the five companions with whom he had practiced asceticism. These individuals, although still unenlightened, had the potential to have their eyes fully opened. Humanity was not hopeless, there were people who would understand the Dharma to which he had opened his own eyes. As a result, the Buddha traveled Northwest toward present day Sarnath near Benares. He crossed the Ganges Rive and arrived in Deer Park. There he met his old companions and began to explain what he had opened his eyes to. This is called "the turning of the wheel," where the Buddha began his first Dharma Talk. The content upon which his talk was based, is what we have come to know as The Four Noble Truths. B. The Four Noble Truths As stated at the beginning of this explanation of general Buddhism, there are many different sects of Buddhism. However, there is a common Dharma and set of underlying assumptions that guide all of the sects. Foremost of these are the Four Noble Truths. These Four Truths are at the core of the Buddha Dharma. They are clear and simple truths about the essence of life. 1. The first noble truth is Dukkha Dukkha literally means "off the mark", "frustrating", "hard to bear." We usually hear it paraphrased as "Life is Difficult" or "Life is Suffering." The use of the word "suffering" has led to the misconception that Buddhism is a pessimistic religion. However, the key idea to this concept of Dukkha, is that there is a way to be free of this suffering. When we are talking about what is difficult in life, we must look toward the Buddhist definition of Dukkha, which presents eight types of pain. 1. Birth 2. Sickness 3. Old age 4. Death 5. Separation from those we love. 6. Having to associate with those we dislike. 7. Not always getting what we seek or want. 8. The difficulties of growing in both mind and body. These are descriptions of life in general, they are facts and situations each of us must confront. How we confront or live with them, determines our suffering. 1. The second noble truth is Samudaya Samudaya means the arising or origin of Dukkha. Another way to define this, is to say, there must be a reason for this pain or frustration one feels in life. The cause of this pain is craving or desire. In Pali this is called "Tanha." We each desire things; we want to be rich, we want to be loved, we want to be with our loved ones etc. It is a never ending thirst. To see this concretely, I often think of a child before Christmas. Everything that appears on television is something they want. It seems that their desire is endless. As adults we are not really different, the stakes have merely changed. When we see that we are on this endless wheel, sometimes described as drowning in the ocean of birth and death, we cry out, "What can I do? Is there something that can help?" Buddhism is positive and optimistic in this regard. 2. The third noble truth is Nirodha Another word for Nirodha is nirvana. It is also called "Tanhakkhaya" which translates as the extinction of thirst. To attain nirvana, we must quench or rather extinguish the thirst and desire. This means when we extinguish the thirst and desire we will attain wisdom. We will see Truth with a capital "T." How do we do this? 3. The fourth noble Truth is Magga Magga means the Path. This is a path we can follow that will allow us to extinguish the thirst that drives us. This path is called "The Noble Eightfold Path." This path has also been called the "Middle Path." This is the path that lies between the two extremes in our search for happiness. The first extreme is to totally follow our senses for pleasure. This will not lead to true happiness. For in constantly seeking pleasure we will not see true life, which embraces suffering as a fact of life. The other extreme is the path of asceticism. If we give everything up, we will no longer crave them. As Prince Siddartha initially followed and ended up empty. He then followed the other extreme and realized it was not the answer. His nirvana was found by following the middle path. 4. The Noble Eightfold Path These eight ways of living have also been called wholesome or "Right." I have remembered them for years by thinking, "V.T. SCLEMM." These stand for: 5. Right View 6. Right Thought 7. Right Speech 8. Right Conduct 9. Right Livelihood 10. Right Effort 11. Right Mindfulness 12. Right Meditation If we want to reach Nirvana we should follow this middle path. This is the basic ideal in Buddhism. If this is the ideal of reaching Nirvana, does that mean it is possible for me? This is the question that we must each ask ourselves. From this basic teaching of Buddhism, there developed a variety of paths or ways to accomplish this. One of these ways is our sect of Buddhism, Jodo Shinshu. I. Basics of Jodo ShinshuJodo Shinshu literally means "True Pure Land Teaching." Shinran Shonin is the founder as established by his followers. In his humble way, he never claimed to be establishing a new sect of Buddhism. Rather, he was merely stating the true purpose of Shakyamuni Buddha's life mission on Earth, which he defines in one of his poems: "The True intention of the Tathagata in coming to this world is to present the truth of the Original Vow." This is called "Shusse no hongai" in Japanese. Most sects of Buddhism make a similar claim. As an example, the Nichiren sect considers the teaching of the Lotus Sutra as being Shakyamuni's main purpose. For Jodo Shinshu followers, this mission was to awaken mankind to the Wisdom and Compassion of Amida Buddha. After Shakyamuni Buddha's death, teachers over the centuries have expounded the Buddhadharma and have transmitted the essence of the teachings of Amida Buddha. Among these are seven whom Shinran Shonin declared as the Seven Masters (Shichi Koso). They are Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu in India; Donran, Doshaku and Zendo in China; and Genshin and Honen in Japan. Shinran Shonin struggled for twenty years as a Tendai monk, at the monastery located on Mt. Hiei near present day Kyoto, Japan. While on Mt. Hiei, Shinran studied and practiced the prescribed Buddhist rituals of the day. It was believed that in following these rituals, one would gain enlightenment. After twenty years of study, practice and devotion, Shinran had not found a way to his spiritual freedom. Shinran abandoned the monastic life to search for a different way for his emancipation. He then encountered a senior monk named Honen. Honen had also studied on Mt. Hiei and abandoned the monastic life style to spread the teachings of Nembutsu. Up until this time, the Buddhist teachings were reserved for those who had left their lives as householder and taken the precepts of monks or nuns. In Honen, Shinran had found a good teacher (Zenchishiki), who would guide him on his path to realize personal salvation. Honen taught that it was through the 18th vow of Amida Buddha, as expressed in the Larger Sutra of Immeasurable Life that the path for spiritual freedom and eventual enlightenment was to be found. The 18th vow stated: "If after my obtaining Buddhahood, all the beings in the ten quarters who, with sincerity of heart hold faith and wish to be born in my country, repeating my name perhaps ten times, are not so born, may I not achieve the Highest Enlightenment. Excluded only are those who have committed the five deadly sins and those who have abused the true Dharma." As a side note, the five deadly sins are: killing your Mother, killing your Father, killing an arhat, spilling the blood of a Buddha and causing a schism in the Sangha. If we realize that each of us have commited these sins in some form, such as through thought, speech or action. We will understand this reference to the five deadly sins as a warning, rather than literal interpretation of being excluded from Amida Buddha's vow. Through Honen's guidance, Shinran understood that the way to his own spiritual freedom was not to be attained by his own power, but through Amida Buddha's vow power (ganriki), which promised to lead all sentient beings to enlightenment. The accepted date of the founding of Jodo Shinshu is 1224. This is when Shinran Shonin completed his draft of A Collection of Passages Revealing the True Teaching, Practice and Realization of the Pure Land Way (Ken jodo shinjitsu kyo gyo sho monrui). This title is commonly abbreviated as Kyogyoshinsho (Teaching, Practice, Shinjin, Realization), a shortened form that came into use about a century after his death. Within this work he often quoted from the works of the seven masters. A. Essence of Jodo Shinshu The heart of the Jodo Shinshu message is that there are two kinds of Merit-transference (eko). Merit transference means to transfer one's merit towards enlightenment to another. One is the phase of going (oso-eko) and the other is the phase of returning (genso-eko). In other words, Amida Buddha, perfecting the ultimate virtues and merits necessary for the Enlightenment of all sentient beings, endows the Teaching, Practice, Faith and Enlightenment to man. This is all signified by bestowing his name "Namo Amida Butsu" for our benefit. In hearing his name "Namo Amida Butsu" in essence it is the power of Amida Buddha's vow working through us. Thus Jodo Shinshu is called the religion of "primal vow of other power" or "tariki hongan." Receiving shinjin, is the ultimate grace bestowed upon us by Amida Buddha. This may seem a little difficult to fully comprehend. Therefore, let us break down these key concepts of Jodo Shinshu. B. Amida Buddha Amida Buddha is often referred to as the Buddha of Infinite Light and Infinite Life. This is in reference to the word "Amida" itself. Amida is taken from the Sanskrit words Amitabha 'infinite light' and Amitayus 'infinite life'. Amida Buddha is one of the most important Buddhas in Mahayana Buddhism, mentioned in over 200 sutras. Of these sutras, there are three major Pure Land Sutras. Of these three, the Larger Sutra of Immeasurable Life is of utmost importance. (Refer to Doctrine for further detail.) Within this sutra is detailed the path of Dharmakara Bodhisattva who eventually became Amida Buddha. Within Shinran's Notes on the 'Essentials of Faith Alone,' he states: "Dharmakaya-as-suchness has neither color nor form; thus, the mind cannot grasp it nor words describe it. From this oneness was manifested form, called dharmakaya-as-compassion. Taking this form, the Buddha proclaimed his name as Bhiksu Dharmakara and established the forty-eight great Vows that surpass conceptual understanding." Many people confuse Amida Buddha and Shakyamuni Buddha. It is easiest if we look at there being three forms of Buddhahood. The first is the Dharmakaya, described above. The second form is dharmakaya as compassion, Amida Buddha. The third form is the historical person Siddartha Gautama, who became Shakyamuni Buddha. Another way to look at this is, Amida Buddha is the content of Shakyamuni Buddha's enlightenment. C. Nembutsu Nembutsu literally means "recollection or mindfulness of the Buddha" This is the translation of the Sanskrit "Buddha-anusmriti" or "Buddha-manasikara." The idea of Nembutsu has existed from the early days of Buddhism as one of the three, six or ten kinds of mindfulness. It refers to the act of devotion to, worship, praise and contemplate on the Buddha. The practice's intent was to control one's evil passions and lead one to rebirth in the heavenly realm and finally to nirvana. Pure Land Buddhism has also been called the path of the Nembutsu. Nembutsu is not limited to the historical Buddha, as was the original practice. In the development of Pure Land Buddhism, through the masters of China and Japan (refer to Shichi Koso) Nembutsu has come to refer to the ideal of recitation of the Name of Amida. Within the Meditation Sutra the term "Nembutsu Samadhi" can be found in the 8th and 9th contemplation. (refer to section on doctrine) The Smaller sutra also referred to as the Amida Sutra, simply mentions concentration on the Name of Amida from one to seven days as the cause of birth in the Pure land. Within present day Jodo Shinshu, by saying the Name of Amida Buddha, which we refer to as "Namo Amida Butsu," one entrusts one's self to Amida Buddha. Thus one enters the path of Nembutsu. Namo Amida Butsu means, "I rely upon Amida Buddha." After the initial saying of the name, meaning saying "Namo Amida Butsu" with a real and true heart, all subsequent nembutsu is a response of gratitude. D. Saying the Name In Jodo Shinshu all that is required is to say the name or to say "Namo Amida Butsu." In this respect, Jodo Shinshu is a Buddhist practice that anyone can follow. In fact, Jodo Shinshu was developed particularly for the layman and those who did not have time for many of the more difficult Buddhist practices. However, saying the Nembutsu does not mean simply reciting the words. One should say them with the realization that within these words are embodied the ultimate truth of life. The words themselves are the vow of Amida Buddha dynamically working for your benefit. As the nembutsu becomes a part of you, it is Amida Buddha working to transform your mind for his mind of true wisdom and compassion. It is an act of going beyond our self centered limitations, reacting to the primal force of Amida Buddha's power. Shinran Shonin calls this Nembutsu, "the nembutsu of tariki," that is the Nembutsu of other power. Other power refers to the power of Amida Buddha. E. Shinjin Shinjin has been translated as faith/mind and a variety of other interpretations. For the most part, it is best to leave shinjin as shinjin, rather than try for a translation. I would like to refer to a book by Professor Takamaro Shigaraki in regards to this subject and I will use an excerpt from his pamphlet An Introduction to Shin Buddhism. Professor Shigariki was Professor of Shin Buddhism and President of Ryukoku University. This excerpt is entitled "On Shinjin." However, deeply immersed in worldly life we may be, if we continue to say the nembutsu wholeheartedly, eventually true nembutsu will be born and true shinjin will be attained. The word shinjin is different from commonly used shin'yo (confidence) and shinrai (trust). Shin'yo and shinrai refer to recognizing and relying on what is not completely certain or thoroughly known. It means non-intellectual approval of something beyond the reach of our reason and judgment. However, shinjin used in Shin Buddhism is entirely different from shin'yo and shinrai. Shinjin means entrusting based on thorough understanding and knowing. Shinran Shonin clarifies shinjin, "One should know that the arising of shinjin is the appearing of wisdom." Attaining shinjin means "knowing" this is the fundamental characteristic of shinjin in Shin Buddhism. However, "knowing" here does not mean "obtaining knowledge," as it is usually understood. It means becoming awakened to my own reality as a person living in illusion and filled with self-attachment, totally ignorant of the truths of dependent origination, impermanence and non-ego. However, as long as I am an ignorant being, it is impossible for me to really know my true condition. It becomes possible only when my true state is shown and made known to me through the eyes of another. Thus, "attaining Shinjin means 'knowing'" means being made to know by the Buddha's Dharma and through nembutsu that I am an ignorant being living in illusion. This is just like seeing my reflection in the mirror. Looking into the mirror is not a separate act from looking at my own figure. Likewise, understanding the Buddha's Dharma is knowing my own reality. This purely existential, non-discriminative way of knowing is no other than attaining wisdom, which is the final goal of Buddhism. Shinran Shonin called it the "wisdom of shinjin." Shinjin, attained in the midst of worldly life, at the same time belongs to the supra-mundane world of truth. That is why Shinran Shonin called it shinshin, or the true mind. However, in reality, we constantly contradict truth and live a life filled with falsity. In this sense, our attainment of shinjin means that what cannot possibly exist in us does exist now. Shinran Shonin described this inconceivable experience as "shinjin that has arisen from tariki (the Power of Amida's Primal Vow)" and "shinjin that has been received." Shinjin, being synonymous with wisdom, enables us to slough off our old selves and grow into new human beings. Thus, attaining shinjin also means "becoming." It is an establishing of a new Self, which Shinran Shonin described as "becoming a person equal to the Tathagata." However, as shinjin is based on realization that we are ignorant beings living in illusion, we cannot expect to become Buddhas in this life. That is why Shinran Shonin used the expression "equal to the Tathagata." In Shin Buddhism, we are nurtured to be persons equal to the Tathagata while remaining ordinary foolish beings. This is the goal of Shin Buddhism. Again, inasmuch as shinjin is "knowing" and "becoming," it is not only a one-time experience. In a sense, our experience of shinjin is complete each time, but in another sense, it remains incomplete with the process of "knowing" and "becoming" taking place throughout our lives. Thus, shinjin in Shin Buddhism means that while single-heartedly saying the nembutsu, we are continuously nurtured to grow into new Selves. Here we come to understand the meaning of salvation in Shin Buddhism. In Shin Buddhism, being saved means "crossing over," that is, going beyond this finite life and crossing over this world of "illusion." As the person of shinjin grows to be equal to the Tathagata, he develops a stout-hearted personality so that he can cross over various hindrances and sufferings in this real life. Living the single path of non-hindrance in shinjin is indeed what salvation means in Shin Buddhism. In this way, the path of the nembutsu as taught in Shin Buddhism directly follows the basic structure of the Buddhist path; entrusting-practice-wisdom. It is the path as explained in Tannisho "if you, entrusting yourself to the Primal Vow, say the nembutsu, you will become a Buddha." In other words, having encountered and being guided by a person of shinjin, we entrust ourselves to the teaching of Pure Land Buddhism (entrusting), exclusively choose the path of the nembutsu (practice), and finally attain the wisdom on shinjin (wisdom). This, in Shin Buddhism, the path to Buddhahood begins with taking refuge in the teaching through nembutsu and aims at attaining shinjin, again through nembutsu. This is why the Shin Buddhist path is called "the path of the nembutsu" as well as "the path of shinjin." II. Kyosho: (The essentials of Jodo Shinshu) Name: Jodo Shinshu Honganjiha Founder: Shinran Shonin (1173-1263) Central Object of Reverence: Amida Tathagata (Namo Amida Butsu) Sutra: Three Principal Sutras of Jodo Shinshu Larger Sutra on Infinite Life (Daikyo)Sutra of Meditation on Infinite Life (Kangyo)Sutra on Amida (Shokyo)Teaching: Having entrusted ourselves to the teaching of Namo Amida Butsu, we experience joy of having received the assurance of Buddhahood. From the constant gratitude that arises within, we shall strive to live in service to the world and humanity. Tradition: We are a community of people joined together in the joy of a common faith in Amida Buddha. As Jodo Shinshu Buddhists, we shall seek to be mindful of our words and deeds, be responsible citizens of our society, and share with others the truth and reality of Jodo Shinshu. Understanding fully the principle of causality, we shall not practice petitionary prayer or magic, nor shall we rely upon astrology or other superstitions. III. Doctrine A. Three Pure Land Sutras Larger Sutra of Immeasurable LifeDaimuryoju KyoSutra of Contemplation on the Buddha of Immeasurable LifeKanmuryoju Kyo, also referred to as the Meditation SutraSmaller Sutra of Immeasurable LifeAmida Kyo (Amida Sutra)B. Shinran's Major Writings The True Teaching, Practice and Realization of the Pure Land Way(Ken jodo shinjitsu kyogyosho monrui)Passages on the Pure Land Way(Jodo Monrui Jusho)Hymns of the Pure Land(Jodo Wasan)Hymns of the Pure Land Masters(Koso Wasan)Hymns of the Dharma-Ages(Shozomatsu WasanHymns in Praise of Prince Shotoku(Kotaishi Shotoku hosanNotes on 'Essentials of Faith Alone'Yuishinsho Mon'iNotes on Once-Calling and Many-Calling(Ichinen Tanen Mon'iNotes on the Inscriptions on Sacred Scrolls(Songo Shinzo MeimonLamp for the Latter AgesMattoshoA Collection of Letters(Shinran Shonin Go-Shosoku Shu)A Collection of Letters (Zensho Text)(Go-Shosoku Shu (Zensho Bon))Letters of the Tradition(Shinran Shonin Ketsumyaku Monju)Gutoku's Notes(Gutsokusho)Passages on the Two Aspects of The Tathagata's Directing of Virtue(Nyorai Nishu EkomonA Collection of Passages on the Types of Birth in the Three Pure Land Sutras(Sango Ojo Monrui)The Virtue of the Name of Amida Tathagata(Mida Nyorai Myogotoku)IV. Our Temple Our temple is similar to many of the temples within the BCA. Since Jodoshinshu is a layman centered, non monastic sect of Buddhism, the buildings are designed to serve a lay community of Buddhists rather than a separate order of monks. The Jodo Shinshu clergy is a married clergy by tradition, and its temples are committed not to cities and towns rather than to mountain seclusion. Unlike other Buddhist traditions, the Sangha in Jodo Shinshu refers to all Buddhists and not just to the order of monks or priests. Thus the building of this temple serves three basic purposes: 1) A ceremonial or ritual purpose: This takes place in the Hondo or main hall of the complex. The Hondo houses the altar (naijin) and is considered the center of the temple. 2) An instructional purpose: These are the classrooms for holding our Dharma school or Sunday school classes for the children. These rooms are also used for various other teaching and meeting purposes. 3) A social cultural purpose: The social hall is the gymnasium, kitchen area. Traditionally the temples were not only religious centers but social, cultural, and educational centers as well. Before World War II, almost the whole of Japanese life outside the home took place at the temple. This was in keeping with the tradition of village temples in Japan as the center of village life. A. The Hondo The hondo is divided into two main parts; the Naijin (inner area) and Gejin (outer area) or seating area. Within the teachings of Jodo Shinshu with its emphasis on Ondogyo, Ondobo (Fellow travelers or fellow brothers and sister) on the same path. A path for all seekers rather than only the priestly class. The Hondo changed to accommodate this difference. Prior to the 13th century in Japan, the Naijin took up the major portion of the floor space of a temple. This was to accommodate the large number of monks who lived in monastic surroundings. Rituals were conducted by the monks alone. Laymen did not participate in the rituals but only attended as observers in a small area called the Gejin. With the Jodo Shinshu emphasis on a communal gathering of priests and laymen, this led to a shrinkage of the Naijin and the enlarging of the Gejin area. Although the idea of a communal gathering of laymen and priests in the temple greatly changed the course of Japanese Buddhism, certain distinctions between priests and laymen continued. One such rule is the tradition that only a priest may enter the Naijin, and this only when he or she is in full vestments. There are no sociological reasons for this rule, but the religious reason is fairly clear. The Naijin is a representation of the Buddhist concept of the universe, and more importantly, of the realm of Enlightenment. As a result, only one who has trained and is well versed in the meaning of the symbols found in the Naijin was prepared enough to enter it. One who enters the Naijin has to know what they are entering into, and what is required of him or her in thought, speech and action. Although the symbolism of who enters the naijin is important to remember, at our temple, those who are learning about the rituals and those who are expressing their dana, by cleaning the naijin may also enter. 1. Gejin In Japan, there are usually no pews in the gejin (outer area). Most temples in Japan, still have tatami mats for the seating area. At the front of the gejin are two dark metal objects called Koro (incense burners) on lacquered wood. One of the first things the members do when they come for a service, is to burn incense. This burning of incense is a way that we acknowledge our existence and our gratitude for the various causes and conditions in our lives. The incense is representative of who we are. As the incense burns away, so does our lives. However, as the smoke from the incense moves beyond the koro to touch everyone in the room. Our lives also move beyond our body to touch all other beings. Therefore, we are acknowledging our interdependence with the world. The two large pictures represent what are called Bodhisattvas. These are beings on the path to enlightenment. Their play is in helping all other beings move towards enlightenment. Although, they have the ability to move completely into enlightenment. As a result of their great compassion for the sake of all sentient beings, they give up their full enlightenment to help all of us. Becoming Bodhisattvas may be considered our goal as Mahayana Buddhists. 2. Naijin The naijin or inner area is made up of three altars: a center altar which is the main object of reverence, and an altar on both the left and right of the center altar. The altar on the left or right when facing the altar, contains a picture scroll of Shinran Shonin (1173-1262), the founder of our sect, and one of the truly great religious thinkers in Japanese Buddhism. The altar to the right of the center altar or left when facing the altar, is a picture scroll of Rennyo Shonin (1415-1499). Rennyo is considered the second founder or restorer of Jodo Shinshu. He is the eighth abbot of our sect. He restored and organized the sect from a small group to become one of the largest religious institution in Japan. He can be described as the Brigham Young of our sect. Above the najin is the gaku or tablet: The gaku is a framed plaque with the words Dai Jihi in Chinese characters. This means Great Compassion which signifies Amida Buddha. The Buddha of infinite wisdom and compassion. Gohonzon (Principal object of reverence): This is the center altar, which can take three forms: 3. A scroll with the words Namo Amida Butsu written upon it, meaning I take refuge in Amida Buddha. 4. A scroll with a picture of Amida Buddha. 5. A statue of Amida Buddha. As Rennyo Shonin has stated in the Goichidai Kikigaki : "In other traditions preference is given to painted images of the Buddha over a scroll bearing the Name, to wooden images over the painted images; in our tradition preference is given to painted images over wooden images and the Name over painted images." There are some who prefer the scroll with the words Namo Amida Butsu because this allows us to realize that Buddha is not a god or idol. Amida Buddha is one of countless Buddhas. Buddha is a person who is enlightened. There are historically three forms for Buddha. Dharmakaya: This is ultimate reality. This form is beyond human conception for the human mind cannot comprehend this ultimate form of Wisdom and Compassion. Amida Buddha: To understand this concept of Dharmakaya, we have Amida Buddha, who in someway allows us to understand great wisdom and compassion in the universe. Shakyamuni Buddha: This is the historical personage, such as the Buddha Shakyamuni, who lived in India some 2500 years ago. He spoke and taught about this truth we know as Buddhism. Our altar has the gold statue of Amida Buddha. This statue reminds us of the nature of Great Compassion. There is great symbolism in the statue. Amida Buddha leans slightly forward, representing the dynamic nature of wisdom compassion. The hands are in a mudra (hand gesture) called the "Gesture of Tranquillity and Protection," signifying the entry of Amida Buddha into the realm of sentient beings for the purpose of teaching and effecting their enlightenment. The thumb and index fingers of both hands are joined to form the circle or wheel of perfection. The right hand is raised to shoulder level with palm facing outward symbolizing Wisdom, the attainment of perfect enlightenment. The left hand hangs pendant with palm facing outward, symbolizing Compassion, the world of Samsara, this world of birth and death. The raised hand also represents Light and the pendant hand Life, Amida being the Buddha of Infinite Light and Life. Between and slightly above the eyes is a spot called the Byakugowhich originally was said to be a tuft of white hair which curled to the right and was one of the 32 physical marks of the Buddha. The Byakugo is said to emit rays of light and is symbolic of the third or spiritual eye. The Nikkei or protuberance at the top of the head is another of the 32 physical marks of the Buddha. It is the bump of Spiritual wisdom. The statue stands on a throne or dais in the shape of a lotus. The symbolism of the lotus is highly developed in Buddhism. The lotus grows in muddy water but rises above the water to bloom, pure, beautiful and unaffected by the defilement which surrounds it. This represents the possibility of enlightenment in a world of birth and death. Kohai: This is the background of light behind the statue and attached to the throne is. The western symbolism of the halo is said to come from this. The rays of light represent the vows of the Bodhisattva Dharmakara, who perfected them to become Amida Buddha. Tocho: This is the curtain of brocade which outline the body of the statue. Originally the curtain completely hid the statue and was raised when ceremonies took place. Keman: This is the piece of metal with the attached threads that partially block the face of Amida Buddha. This altar piece is important in teaching us a fundamental aspect of the teachings. Amida Buddha represents Truth, but the keman blocks the face of truth. To see the face it is necessary for us to bow. To truly understand the nature of truth, one must be humble. In addition, each person must move in the way that is best for them to see the truth. They must find their own vision. Gokuden: This is the structure in which the Gohonzon is placed. It is called the palace hall. The pillars and ornaments are all gold in color. Embellishing the roofbeams are carved figures of elephants, lions and dragons, all guardian animals of the Buddha and symbolic of the Buddha's spiritual power. The front four pillars represent Buddhism's basic teachings of the Four Noble Truths. The gold throughout the altar area represents the ideal that the truth does not tarnish over time. Shumidan: This is the Sumeru throne. The Gokuden sits upon a rectangular throne. The throne is widest at the top and bottom and narrowest in the middle resembling a flattened spool. This is said to be the shape of the cosmic mountain called Sumeru in Sanskrit. In Indian cosmology, Mt. Sumeru is the highest mountain in the center of our world system. Sumi Yoraku: These are front corner ornaments. Yoraku are suspended from a canopy shaped like a lotus leaf. They are derived from ornaments worn around the neck of body of aristocratic men in ancient India. The idea of nobility being the result of birth was denied by Shakyamuni Buddha who stated that nobility was the result of one's deeds and not the result of one's birth. This pair of Yoraku represent the attainment of nobility through noble deeds. Kiku Rinto: These are the chrysanthemum circular lamps. This is an open oil lamp with a circular band over it. This circle of light represents Enlightenment, that is perfect, without beginning or end. The metal bands are decorated with a chrysanthemum pattern. The kiku rinto is particular to our sect of Buddhism. The area directly in front of the Gohonzon (Central Altar) has various offerings and a smaller table (Uajoku). Kasha: This is a special incense burner placed upon the table. The kasha, meaning fire house, is a double tiered incense burner of dark metal with a lid. Kebyo: There are also two flower vases in front of the Gohonzon. The Kebyo is a bulb-shaped vase of dark metal. Although called a flower vase, it is a vessel used for the offering of water, the sustainer of all life. The branch of an evergreen or other green leafed branch is placed in the kebyo to symbolize flowing water. It is only flowing water that remains pure and is the symbol of the Dharma, ever flowing and pure. Danmori: This is a simple stand of four circular tiers held in place by three wooden dowels. The danmori is used when two or more varieties of fruit, vegetables, mochi or manju are offered. These offerings of food, represent are gratitude for the various causes and conditions which help to sustain our lives. Each of the altars has a small table with the candles, flowers and incense burners set up with the symbolism of left representing this world of birth and death and the right representing the truth of enlightenment. Therefore the candles are always on the right. The flowers, which are beautiful but will wither are on the left. Daikin: The Daikin is a large inverted bell which is struck on the outside lip with a leather-covered clapper made of lacquered wood. Of Chinese origin, the Daikin is said to be in the shape of the Buddha Shakyamuni's begging bowl. The deep, resonant tone of the Daikin symbolizes the impermanence of all things. I. The Obutsudan (Buddha Altar) Whenever Buddhism has moved to a new culture, it has adapted to and evolved to meet the specific character of that particular culture and lifestyle. While Buddhism has been in America for many years, it will probably take quite sometime until a definitive American form of Buddhism develops. Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, particular as practiced by our B.C.A. temples, has changed in two very significant ways. The first is that one's Buddhist education takes place primarily in the temple. Thus, the necessity of our temples are self evident. The second is that this education, takes place primarily on Sundays, when most of the services are held. This particular practice, while necessary, has in some ways constricted and limited the full impact of Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, in our everyday lives. To find joy in the Nembutsu teachings, is to live everyday to its fullest, with a deep appreciation for all the causes and conditions, which allow us this wondrous gift. Therefore, limiting the development of our religious consciousness to one day and place during the week, is contrary to the intention of the Buddhist teachings. Our Issei pioneers struggled under incredible odds and forces, to build many beautiful temples, throughout the United States. This was a labor of love from their deep religious devotion, for the benefit of future generations. The temples are extremely important as the centers for the development of our spirituality and religious consciousness. The prosperity of the temples are a reflection of the validity of the Nembutsu teachings in our American way of life. However, in so doing, it is just as important that we not abandon the rich spiritual traditions that have formed the essence of our Nembutsu way of life. One important way of instilling this sense of everyday devotion, is by having an Obutsudan in our homes. By doing so, we are bringing the very profound and compassionate teachings of Buddha into the daily lives of ourselves and our children. The Obutsudan will have a deep spiritual meaning for each member of your household. The Obutsudan and the practice of maintaining it, serves as a mirror for each individual to see their true self and to fully awaken one's spirituality. Thus by placing the Obutsudan in a central location within our homes, it serves as a constant reminder of the various causes and conditions which sustain us. A. The Obutsudan The Obutsudan is basically a small version of the naijin found at the center of all temples. The symbolism is the same pertaining to the central object of reverence, the candles and incense. Just as with the naijin, some families have three altars within them. However, within most Obutsudan, you will find one altar with one of the three common type of Gohonzon (see naijin). 1. Arrangement of Obutsudan Articles In its simplest form, the components comprising the Obutsudan are the Gohonzon, flower vase, candleholder and incense burner. The arrangement of the three articles that adorn the Gohonzon is referred to as "mitsu gusoku" (three element arrangement). This is also the most common form of arrangement for the naijin. As you face the Obutsudan, the Gohonzon is in the center, with the flower vase to the left, the incense burner in the front and the candle to the right. During special occasions, such as Hoonko, Nehan-E, Hanamatsuri, Gotan-E, Obon and Bodhi Day, we change the arrangement to the "go gusoku" (five element arrangement). An offering of food and a rin (small bell) are added to the Obutsudan. Any food offering is always placed on a special plate or vessel situated directly in front of the Gohonzon or on each side. The bell is placed towards the right side of the arrangement. In many family altars, there is a brightly colored triangular brocade cloth called an Uchishiki. The Uchishiki represents the triangular straw mat or cloth that the historical Buddha Shakyamuni sat upon while lecturing. In the event of the death of a family member, the Uchishiki is often turned over exposing a plain white material. White is traditionally the color associated with death, and the Uchishiki is kept with the white side exposed until after the 49thDay Memorial Service. During this time, brightly colored flowers, especially red, are avoided. Many families may also have a small wooden memorial tablet, called an Ihai, which contains the Buddhist names and dates of deceased family members. Traditionally this is not used in Jodo Shinshu. However, this is a common practice within many families. If this is the case, it should not be placed within the Obutsudan. This is the same for photographs of the deceased or any similar items. They should be placed within a drawer within the Obutsudan or displayed in front or to the side. B. Example of arrangement for Obutsudan II. Daily Practice and Etiquette Traditionally , all family members should hold both morning and evening observances at the Obutsudan. The manner of practice is secondary to the act of coming before the Obutsudan to express gratitude for the causes and conditions that have allowed each family member to live. Whether it is a simple gassho and recitation of "Namo Amida Butsu", or a more involved ritual of lighting the candles, chanting, and oshoko(incense burning), the purpose of this practice is to continually be aware of one's spiritual life and to express gratitude for the benevolence of Amida Buddha. Since the Obutsudan represents the spiritual heart of the home, it should always be kept as clean and beautiful as possible. It should also be placed where the family often gathers, such as the living room or family room. Fresh flowers should be placed before the Obutsudan whenever possible. The food offerings upon the Obutsudan have traditionally been rice. Since rice was considered the staple of life in the Asian countries where Jodo Shinshu developed. However, any offering from the daily menu will suffice as a gesture of gratitude and thanksgiving. A. Suggestions for families with children For families with children, it is important that the children experience daily family Obutsudan services. This will help them cultivate an appreciation and understanding that Buddhism is about their everyday life, not just something they do on Sunday mornings. A designated time, such as early morning, before going to bed or possibly upon returning home from the day's activities, should be established for the children. One suggested practice may be for the children to conduct their own service. They may strike the bellonce, gassho and recite "Namo Amida Butsu." This will encourage the child in developing their own spiritual consciousness, while avoiding the fire dangers associated with the lighting of candles and incense. In addition to the family Obutsudan, you may also want to set up a small Obutsudan in the child's room. This will help him or her to realize that Amida Buddha is always there for them and that the Nembutsu teachings are a personal way of life, not just something the family does. B. Service Etiquette Etiquette in general, is concerned with the refinement of human behavior in relation to other human beings. Common courtesy, cordiality, grace and beauty, along with tradition, are all involved. In addition, service etiquette involves the refinement of one's behavior in relation to the three treasures of Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Reverence and gratitude for the Wisdom and Compassion of Amida Buddha is of central importance in the cultivation of Buddhist ritual and etiquette. The outward gestures of reverence are secondary to the cultivation of one's spiritual life. The following are explanations and examples of Buddhist etiquette and rituals. 1. Gassho This is the joining of the palms, in Sanskrit it is called Anjali. It is an Indian gesture of greeting, farewell, thanks, and reverence. In ancient India, there were twelve forms of Gassho. In Jodo Shinshu we use the first of these twelve forms. It is formed by placing the palms and ten fingers together at chest level and at a 45 degree angle upwards. We often explain Gassho as the coming together of human (left) with Buddha (right), as a gesture of oneness. Among Buddhists throughout the world, this gesture is used to express hello, goodbye, and thank you. As a gesture of reverence for the Buddha, this Gassho is performed with a deep bow from the waist called Raihai. 2. The Promise and The Golden Chain In our Dharma School services there are two short passages that we recite each week. One is "tThe Promise" and the other is "The Golden Chain." Athough they are intended to teach our children they have a deeper message for both children and adults. In "The Golden Chain", we hope to remind the participants in the interdependence we share with all sentient beings. We do not live alone and our lives are sustained through the give and take we have with the world around us. Ecology in a Buddhist sense. In "The Promise" we express appreciation to the Buddha who has provided us with these wonderful teachings. The Golden Chain I am a link in Amida Buddha's golden chain of love that stretches around the world. I will keep my link bright and strong. I will be kind and gentle to every living thing and protect all who are weaker than myself. I will think pure and beautiful thoughts, say pure and beautiful words and do pure and beautiful deeds. May every link in Amida Buddha's golden chain of love be bright and strong and may we all attain perfect peace. The Promise We thank the Buddha for showing us the way of freedom.We will endeavor to walk in his noble path, everyday of our lives. 3. Raihai There are many physical postures of revering the Buddha. In India there were nine forms in ascending degrees of formality. In China there were eighteen and Japan three forms. For the purpose of this handbook, we will only describe the three used in Japan. a) Gotaitochi Raihai (five body parts to the ground Raihai) This form of Raihai is used in most Buddhist countries. It is considered the most formal type. It is performed by touching the ground with both knees, both elbows and the forehead. In some traditions, this is done by lying completely flat on the ground, face down. b) Chokigassho Raihai (tall kneeling Gassho Raihai) This is is performed by kneeling with the knees and toes touching the ground and the thighs and body erect. A slightly different form of this Raihai is performed by Jodo Shinshu priests in very formal ceremonies. c) Teishugassho Raihai (lowering head Gassho Raihai) This is performed by sitting or standing erect, bowing one's head, forming the Gassho and bowing the body from the waist to a 45 degree angle. This is the form used in Jodo Shinshu for most occasions. 4. Oshoko In the past, Oshoko has often been interpreted as incense offering. This is an incorrect translation and usage in our Jodo Shinshu tradition. In the ritual of Oshoko we are not offering the incense to any god or idol. It is not an act of petition. It is a ritual to remind us of the purity of our intentions and the interdependence of all things. The translation should be to "burn incense". This burning of incense is a way that we acknowledge our existence and our gratitude for the various causes and conditions in our lives. The incense is representative of who we are. As the incense burns away, so do our lives. However, as the smoke from the incense moves beyond the koro to touch everyone in the room, our lives also move beyond our body to touch all other beings. Therefore, we acknowledge our interdependence with the world. Oshoko is performed in the following manner. Walk toward the incense burner. Stop two or three steps before the table and bow.Step up to the incense burner. With your right hand, take a tiny pinch of the ground incense (oko) and drop it into the incense burner, over the burning sticks or charcoal. (This need be done once only, and it is not necessary to bring the incense to your forehead.)Gassho and recite the Nembutsu.Take two or three steps back, bow and return to your seat. 5. Onenju In some sects of Buddhism, this string of beads is called Ojuzu (counting beads). However, Jodo Shinshu does not use these beads as an aid in meditation or for counting. Therefore it is more properly called Onenju (thought beads). The Catholic rosary and the Muslim worry beads are derived from these Buddhist beads. There are many meanings for the Onenju and its usage. However, for the sake of this handbook we will use the most widely accepted definition of Onenju for Jodo Shinshu Buddhists. Jodo Shinshu priests often carry an Onenju with 108 beads. This number does not include the 4 small Shitenno (four heavenly kings) beads which represent the four heavenly kings said to dwell on the four sides of Mt. Sumeru. Also not included in the count are the two large beads called Oyadama (parent beads) and the auxiliary beads hanging from the Oyadama. The remaining 108 beads represent the 108 Bonno (afflicting passions of man). The 108 Bonno can be broken down as follows. Six types of Bonno can arise when the sense organs (eyes, ears, tongue, nose, body and mind) perceive an object. The objects perceived may be considered desirable, undesirable, neither desirable nor undesirable, pleasurable, painful, or neither pleasurable nor painful. Six possibilities for each of the six sense objects give 36 possibilities. Each of these 36 possibilities exists in the past, present or future so that a total of 108 possibilities exist. The number 108 is traditionally an ideal number since it is a multiple of the number 9 which has the greatest potential for variation. The Onenju of 108 beads is divided into two sections of 54 beads each, hence the two Oyadama. Each side is further divided into sections of 7,14 and 33 beads by the Shitenno beads. With this arrangement, the four Shitenno beads form a square representing the four cardinal directions when the Onenju is folded in two. The laity of Jodo Shinshu usually carry a single strand of beads. This is an abbreviated form of the full set carried by the priests. The single strand usually consists of two Shitenno beads, one Oyadama bead and at least nine beads or a multiple thereof, depending on the size of the beads. Women usually use a single strand Onenju with a tassel and men usually use an Onenju with a simple string arrangement. The Onenju is always held in the left hand since the left hand represents the world of Samsara (this world) with its 108 Bonno. The right hand represents the world of Nirvana. It is through the use of the Onenju that the two utterly different worlds of Samsara and Nirvana are seen in their essential Oneness. From a Jodo Shinshu point of view, one can say that the left hand of Samsara, of the 108 Bonno and egotism, represents the world of "Namo", of myself. The right hand represents Nirvana the world of Enlightenment, the world of Amida Buddha. The Onenju brings together these two seemingly opposite worlds into the Oneness of Namo Amida Butsu. No Namo or Amida Butsu separately, but only Namo Amida Butsu. In the Nishi Honganji tradition of Jodo Shinshu, the Onenju encircles the hands in Gassho with the tassel or strings hanging below the two palms and the two thumbs resting lightly on the beads. When not in use, the Onenju is held in the left hand or placed around the left wrist.